How do Solar Panels Work?
If earlier people were dependent on centralized power supply, but now everyone has a good alternative – solar panels. Such equipment is ideal for installation in private homes, cottages, and industrial facilities. Power plants have become more affordable and more diverse in types and capacity. Now everyone knows what do solar panels look like.
The device and history of solar panels
Mankind has long thought about the use of inexhaustible energy from the sun. The first attempts were made in the twentieth century. Then the concept of thermal power plants was developed. However, in practice it showed very low efficiency, because the concept implied transformation of solar energy. Having analyzed the first failure, scientists came to the conclusion that it was necessary to use the sun’s rays directly. Such a principle was discovered in 1839. It was founded by Alexander Becquerel. However, it took many years before the first semiconductors appeared. They were not invented until 1873. This year can be called the beginning of work on modern prototypes of power plants.
If we talk about what solar panels sydney consists of, it is initially worth mentioning photovoltaic cells. They can be called small generators. They perform the main function – to collect the energy of the sun. Today there are several types of solar panels, which will be discussed in the next section. However, regardless of the type, a modern panel is a base of a certain size, on which the aforementioned photovoltaic cells are placed. These cells are very fragile, so they are further protected by glass and a polymer substrate.
However, the solar panels are only part of the entire power plant. It also includes other elements:
- The battery pack.
- The charge controller.
Each of the above devices performs its own function. Battery – accumulates and stores the extracted energy, the controller – controls the power, connects and disconnects the battery, analyzing the level of charge. The inverter is also called a converter. This equipment turns direct current into alternating current. Thanks to it, electricity can be used for household purposes. The last component of the power plant is a stabilizer. It protects the whole system from power surges. Experts can tell you how to remove pool solar panels from the roof.
What types of solar panels exist?
There are several classification attributes by which all solar panels are divided into different types:
- Type of device.
- The material of manufacture of the photovoltaic layer.
According to the type of device there are two types: flexible and rigid. The first type is characterized by its plasticity. Such a panel can be easily twisted into a tube, without damaging anything. Solid panel does not change its shape. According to the material of manufacture, there are three types: amorphous, polycrystalline, monocrystalline.
Amorphous batteries can be flexible. They are undemanding to the place of installation, but the efficiency of such a device is very low. It is no more than six percent. Polycrystalline products have a low price. However, they are more effective in cloudy weather. In very hot weather, their output decreases slightly more than that of monocrystalline modules.
If you need the maximum effect of the power plant, you should give preference to panels with monocrystalline elements. Their efficiency level reaches twenty-five percent. Monocrystalline panels are more expensive because monocrystalline silicon requires more energy and time to produce.
How a solar panel works
If you have to buy a solar panel, you must be familiar not only with their device, but also with the principle of operation. So, how does the solar panel work? Despite the external simplicity of the device, the principle of operation of such a power plant is quite complex. It is based on the photoelectric effect, which is achieved with the help of photovoltaic cells.
Solar panels collect rays. They hit the photovoltaic layer. The sunlight causes electrons to be released from the two layers. Electrons from the first layer stand in the vacated space of the second layer. There is a constant movement of the electrons, which leads to a natural tension on the external circuit. As a result, one of the photovoltaic layers becomes negatively charged and the second layer becomes positively charged.
These actions put the battery into operation. It begins to gain and store a charge. The charge level of the battery is constantly monitored. If it is low, the controller activates the solar panel. If the charge is high, the same device disables the panel. Next, the inverter is switched on. It converts the current from DC to AC. With its help, a voltage of 220 V appears at the output of the power plant. This makes it possible to connect and supply power to household appliances. This is the principle of solar panels newcastle. If you do not know how do solar panels work in the winter, the principle is the same.